Non-ferrous metals divided into subgroups according to various criteria:
Lungs – magnesium, titanium, aluminum
Heavy – copper, zinc, tin, nickel, lead;
Noble – gold, silver, platinum group metals;
Refractory – poorly heat treatable;
Scattered – found in the form of impurities in minerals. this group includes rubidium, thallium, gallium, indium, scandium, germanium and others;
Rare earths – 17 elements, including yttrium, scandium, lanthanum and lanthanides. Deposits are rare, but the reserves of raw materials in the deposits are sufficient.
Radioactive – emit streams of elementary particles into the external environment.
Uranium, polonium, radium, thorium, sea anemone, and protactinium are considered to be natural radioactive. Artificial patterns created by man.
Metals are produced in large quantities due to their demand in the industry. Non-ferrous metallurgy covers mining and beneficiation of ores, smelting of pure metals and production of alloys. The industry is divided into light metallurgy and metallurgy of heavy non-ferrous metals. In the Russian Federation, aluminum, titanium-magnesium, copper, zinc, nickel-cobalt industry are well developed.
Non-ferrous metals inherent in a number of general properties
High thermal conductivity and specific heat. For welding, a powerful heat pulse is needed, but after the cessation of exposure, rapid cooling is observed. In some cases, welding is preceded by heating the part – this is especially true for aluminum, copper and magnesium.
Absorption of atmospheric gases (except inert gases) during heat treatment. It is especially pronounced in refractory chemically active zirconium, titanium, tantalum, and molybdenum.
Copper, aluminum and magnesium, like all their alloys, lose their mechanical properties when heated and are destroyed even with weak shocks.