Brass is an alloy based on metals: copper and zinc. The zinc content in the alloy can be from 5 to 45%. Zinc is cheaper compared to copper, for this reason, its introduction into the alloy not only improves the mechanical, anti-friction and technological properties but also reduces the cost of brass.
The melting point of brass is 880–950 ° C, density is 8300-8700 kg / m3.
Depending on the chemical composition are distinguished:
Simple (two-component) brass. In their composition only copper and zinc.
Special (multicomponent) brass. They contain copper, zinc, lead, aluminum, iron and other elements that improve the basic properties of the material. Such elements are called alloying.
Special brass is divided into classes, named for the main alloying element (manganese, aluminum, silicon, tin, nickel, lead).
By the degree of processing brass are:
• deformable (brass tape, wire, pipe, brass sheet);
• casting (fittings, bearings, instrument parts).
Depending on the zinc content in a brass alloy, there are:
Red, the zinc content in which is in the range of 5–20%
Yellow containing more than 20% zinc
|Alloy||Composition and Use|
|Admiralty brass||30% zinc and 1% tin, used to inhibit dezincification|
|Aich’s alloy||60.66% copper, 36.58% zinc, 1.02% tin, and 1.74% iron. Corrosion resistance, hardness, and toughness make it useful for marine applications.|
|Alpha brass||Less than 35% zinc, malleable, can be worked cold, used in pressing, forging, or similar applications. Alpha brasses have only one phase, with face-centered cubic crystal structure.|
|Prince’s metal or Prince Rupert’s metal||Alpha brass containing 75% copper and 25% zinc. It’s named for Prince Rupert of the Rhine and used to imitate gold.|
|Alpha-beta brass, Muntz metal, or duplex brass||35-45% zinc, suited for hot working. It contains both α and β’ phase; the β’-phase is body-centered cubic and is harder and stronger than α. Alpha-beta brasses are usually worked hot.|
|Aluminum brass||Contains aluminum, which improves its corrosion resistance. It’s used for seawater service and in Euro coins (Nordic gold).|
|Arsenical brass||Contains arsenic and frequently aluminum and is used for boiler fireboxes|
|Beta brass||45-50% zinc content. It can only be worked hot, produces a hard, strong metal that is suitable for casting.|
|Cartridge brass||30% zinc brass with good cold-working properties; used for ammunition cases|
|Common brass, or rivet brass||37% zinc brass, the standard for cold working|
|DZR brass||dezincification resistant brass with a small percentage of arsenic|
|Gilding metal||95% copper and 5% zinc, softest type of common brass, used for ammunition jackets|
|High brass||65% copper and 35% zinc, has high tensile strength and is used for springs, rivets, and screws|
|Leaded brass||Alpha-beta brass with an addition of lead, easily machined|
|Lead-free brass||As defined by California Assembly Bill AB 1953 contains “not more than 0.25 percent lead content”|
|Low brass||Copper-zinc alloy containing 20% zinc; ductile brass used for flexible metal hoses and bellows|
|Manganese brass||70% copper, 29% zinc, and 1.3% manganese, used in making golden dollar coins in the United States|
|Muntz metal||60% copper, 40% zinc, and a trace of iron, used as a lining on boats|
|Naval brass||40% zinc and 1% tin, similar to admiralty brass|
|Nickel brass||70% copper, 24.5% zinc, and 5.5% nickel used to make pound coins in the pound sterling currency|
|Nordic gold||89% copper, 5% aluminium, 5% zinc, and 1% tin, used in 10, 20, and 50 cents in euro coins|
|Red brass||American term for the copper-zinc-tin alloy known as gunmetal considered both a brass and a bronze. Red brass usually contains 85% copper, 5% tin, 5% lead, and 5% zinc. Red brass may be copper alloy C23000, which is 14 to 16% zinc, 0.05% iron and lead, and the remainder copper. Red brass also may refer to ounce metal, another copper-zinc-tin alloy.|
|Rich low brass (Tombac)||15% zinc, often used for jewelry|
|Tonval brass (also called CW617N, CZ122, or OT58)||copper-lead-zinc alloy|
|White brass||Brittle metal containing more than 50% zinc. White brass may also refer to certain nickel silver alloys as well as Cu-Zn-Sn alloys with high proportions (typically 40%+) of tin and/or zinc, as well as predominantly zinc casting alloys with a copper additive.|
|Yellow brass||American term for 33% zinc brass|
Mere info about brass chemical composition:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brass
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